United Arab Emirates History, Geography, Government and politics, Media Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
(Learn how and when to remove this template message)

Apostasy is a crime punishable by death in the UAE.[225][226] Blasphemy is illegal; expatriates involved in insulting Islam are liable for deportation.[227] UAE incorporates hudud crimes of Sharia (i.e., crimes against God) into its Penal Code – apostasy being one of them.[228] Article 1 and Article 66 of UAE's Penal Code requires hudud crimes to be punished with the death penalty;[228][229] therefore, apostasy is punishable by death in the UAE.

In several cases, the courts of the UAE have jailed women who have reported rape.[230][231][76][232][233][234] For example, a British woman, after she reported being gang raped by three men, was charged with the crime of "alcohol consumption".[76][233] Another British woman was charged with "public intoxication and extramarital sex" after she reported being raped,[231] while an Australian woman was similarly sentenced to jail after she reported gang rape in the UAE.[231][76] In another recent case, an 18-year Emirati girl withdrew her complaint of gang rape by six men when the prosecution threatened her with a long jail term and flogging.[235] The woman still had to serve one year in jail.[236] In July 2013, a Norwegian woman, Marte Dalelv, reported rape to the police and received a prison sentence for "illicit sex and alcohol consumption".[231]

Dancing in public is illegal in the UAE.[237][238][239]

Human rights

(Learn how and when to remove this template message)

Flogging and stoning are legal punishments in the UAE. The requirement is derived from Sharia law, and has been federal law since 2005.[240] Some domestic workers in the UAE are victims of the country's interpretations of Sharia judicial punishments such as flogging and stoning.[180] The annual Freedom House report on Freedom in the World has listed the United Arab Emirates as "Not Free" every year since 1999, the first year for which records are available on their website.[116]

Protest against the Saudi Arabian-led intervention in Yemen, March 2018

The UAE has escaped the Arab Spring; however, more than 100 Emirati activists were jailed and tortured because they sought reforms.[78][241][242] Since 2011, the UAE government has increasingly carried out forced disappearances.[243][244][245][246][247][248] Many foreign nationals and Emirati citizens have been arrested and abducted by the state. The UAE government denies these people are being held (to conceal their whereabouts), placing these people outside the protection of the law.[242][244][249] According to Human Rights Watch, the reports of forced disappearance and torture in the UAE are of grave concern.[245]

The Arab Organization for Human Rights has obtained testimonies from many defendants, for its report on "Forced Disappearance and Torture in the UAE", who reported that they had been kidnapped, tortured and abused in detention centres.[244][249] The report included 16 different methods of torture including severe beatings, threats with electrocution and denying access to medical care.[244][249]

In 2013, 94 Emirati activists were held in secret detention centres and put on trial for allegedly attempting to overthrow the government.[250] Human rights organizations have spoken out against the secrecy of the trial. An Emirati, whose father is among the defendants, was arrested for tweeting about the trial. In April 2013, he was sentenced to 10 months in jail.[251] The latest forced disappearance involves three sisters from Abu Dhabi.[252]

Repressive measures were also used against non-Emiratis in order to justify the UAE government's claim that there is an "international plot" in which UAE citizens and foreigners were working together to destabilize the country.[249] Foreign nationals were also subjected to a campaign of deportations.[249] There are many documented cases of Egyptians and other foreign nationals who had spent years working in the UAE and were then given only a few days to leave the country.[249]

Foreign nationals subjected to forced disappearance include two Libyans[253] and two Qataris.[249][254] Amnesty International reported that the Qatari men have been abducted by the UAE government and the UAE government has withheld information about the men's fate from their families.[249][254] Amongst the foreign nationals detained, imprisoned and expelled is Iyad El-Baghdadi, a popular blogger and Twitter personality.[249] He was arrested by UAE authorities, detained, imprisoned and then expelled from the country.[249] Despite his lifetime residence in the UAE, as a Palestinian citizen, El-Baghdadi had no recourse to contest this order.[249] He could not be deported back to the Palestinian territories, therefore he was deported to Malaysia.[249]

In recent years, many Shia Muslim expatriates have been deported from the UAE.[255][256][257] Lebanese Shia families in particular have been deported for their alleged sympathy for Hezbollah.[258][259][260][261][262][263] According to some organizations, more than 4,000 Shia expatriates have been deported from the UAE in recent years.[264][265]

The issue of sexual abuse among female domestic workers is another area of concern, particularly given that domestic servants are not covered by the UAE labour law of 1980 or the draft labour law of 2007.[266] Worker protests have been suppressed and protesters imprisoned without due process.[267] In its 2013 Annual Report, Amnesty International drew attention to the United Arab Emirates' poor record on a number of human rights issues. They highlighted the government's restrictive approach to freedom of speech and assembly, their use of arbitrary arrest and torture, and UAE's use of the death penalty.[268]

The State Security Apparatus in the UAE has been accused of a series of atrocities and human rights abuses including enforced disappearance, arbitrary arrests and torture.[269]

Freedom of association is also severely curtailed. All associations and NGOs have to register through the Ministry of Social Affairs and are therefore under de facto State control. About twenty non-political groups operate on the territory without registration. All associations have to be submitted to censorship guidelines and all publications have first to be approved by the government.[270]

Migrant workers

Two south Asian blue-collar workers posing for a picture with Burj Khalifa on the background.

Migrant workers in the UAE are not allowed to join trade unions or go on strike. Those who strike may risk prison and deportation,[271][272] as seen in 2014 when dozens of workers were deported for striking.[273] The International Trade Union Confederation has called on the United Nations to investigate evidence that thousands of migrant workers in the UAE are treated as slave labour.[274]

In 2019, an investigation performed by The Guardian revealed that thousands of migrant construction workers employed on infrastructure and building projects for the UAE's Expo 2020 exhibition were working in an unsafe environment. Some were even exposed to potentially fatal situations due to cardiovascular issues. Long hours in the sun made them vulnerable to heat strokes.[275]

A report in January 2020 highlighted that the employers in the United Arab Emirates have been exploiting the Indian labor and hiring them on tourist visas, which is easier and cheaper than work permits. These migrant workers are left open to labor abuse, where they also fear reporting exploitation due to their illegal status. Besides, the issue remains unknown as the visit visa data is not maintained in both the UAE and Indian migration and employment records.[276]

Dubai construction workers having lunch break.

In a 22 July 2020 news piece, Reuters reported human rights groups as saying conditions had deteriorated because of the COVID-19 pandemic. Many migrant workers racked up debt and depended on the help of charities. The report cited salary delays and layoffs as a major risk, in addition to overcrowded living conditions, lack of support and problems linked with healthcare and sick pay. Reuters reported at least 200,000 workers, mostly from India but also from Pakistan, Bangladesh, the Philippines and Nepal, had been repatriated, according to their diplomatic missions.[277]

On 2 May 2020, the Consul General of India in Dubai, Vipul, confirmed that more than 150,000 Indians in the United Arab Emirates registered to be repatriated through the e-registration option provided by Indian consulates in the UAE. According to the figures, 25% applicants lost their jobs and nearly 15% were stranded in the country due to lockdown. Besides, 50% of the total applicants were from the state of Kerala, India.[278]

On 9 October 2020, The Telegraph reported that many migrant workers were left abandoned, as they lost their jobs amidst the tightening economy due to COVID-19. With no jobs and expired visas, many hived in parks under the city's glistening skyscrapers, appealing for repatriation flights home. White collar job workers were also threatened by the pandemic in the Emirates, as many UK expats returned home since the beginning of coronavirus.[279]

Various human rights organisations have raised serious concerns about the alleged abuse of migrant workers by major contractors organising Expo 2020. UAE's business solution provider German Pavilion is also held accountable for abusing migrant workers.[280]

Media

Dubai Media City is home to diverse news and tech companies.

The UAE's media is annually classified as "not free" in the Freedom of the Press report by Freedom House.[281] The UAE ranks poorly in the annual Press Freedom Index by Reporters without Borders. Dubai Media City and twofour54 are the UAE's main media zones. The UAE is home to some pan-Arab broadcasters, including the Middle East Broadcasting Centre and Orbit Showtime Network. In 2007, Sheikh Mohammed bin Rashid Al Maktoum decreed that journalists can no longer be prosecuted or imprisoned for reasons relating to their work.[282] At the same time, the UAE has made it illegal to disseminate online material that can threaten "public order",[283] and hands down prison terms for those who "deride or damage" the reputation of the state and "display contempt" for religion.[284]

Print media

According to UAE Year Book 2013, there are seven Arabic newspapers and eight English language newspapers, as well as a Tagalog newspaper produced and published in the UAE.

Social media

New media, such as Facebook, Twitter, YouTube and Instagram are used widely in the UAE by the government entities and by the public as well.[285] The UAE Government avails official social media accounts to communicate with public and hear their needs.[285]

Economy

The UAE has developed from a juxtaposition of Bedouin tribes to one of the world's most wealthy states in only about 50 years. Economic growth has been impressive and steady throughout the history of this young confederation of emirates with brief periods of recessions only, e.g. in the global financial and economic crisis years 2008–09, and a couple of more mixed years starting in 2015 and persisting until 2019. Between 2000 and 2018, average real gross domestic product (GDP) growth was at close to 4%.[286] It is the second largest economy in the GCC (after Saudi Arabia),[287] with a nominal gross domestic product (GDP) of US$414.2 billion, and a real GDP of 392.8 billion constant 2010 USD in 2018.[286] Since its independence in 1971, the UAE's economy has grown by nearly 231 times to 1.45 trillion AED in 2013. The non-oil trade has grown to 1.2 trillion AED, a growth by around 28 times from 1981 to 2012.[287] Backed by the world's seventh-largest oil deposits, and thanks to considerate investments combined with decided economic liberalism and firm Government control, the UAE has seen their real GDP more than triple in the last four decades. Nowadays the UAE is one of the world's richest countries, with GDP per capita almost 80% higher than OECD average.[286]

As impressive as economic growth has been in the UAE, the total population has increased from just around 550,000 in 1975 to close to 10 million in 2018. This growth is mainly due to the influx of foreign workers into the country, making the national population a minority. The UAE features a unique labour market system, in which residence in the UAE is conditional on stringent visa rules. This system is a major advantage in terms of macroeconomic stability, as labour supply adjusts quickly to demand throughout economic business cycles. This allows the Government to keep unemployment in the country on a very low level of less than 3%, and it also gives the Government more leeway in terms of macroeconomic policies – where other governments often need to make trade-offs between fighting unemployment and fighting inflation.[286]

Between 2014 and 2018, the accommodation and food, education, information and communication, arts and recreation, and real estate sectors overperformed in terms of growth, whereas the construction, logistics, professional services, public, and oil and gas sectors underperformed.[286]

Business and finance

Abu Dhabi skyline

The UAE offers businesses a strong enabling environment: stable political and macroeconomic conditions, a future-oriented Government, good general infrastructure and ICT infrastructure. Moreover, the country has made continuous and convincing improvements to its regulatory environment[286] and is ranked as the 26th best nation in the world for doing business by the Doing Business 2017 Report published by the World Bank Group.[288] The UAE are in the top ranks of several other global indices, such as the World Economic Forum's (WEF) Global Competitiveness Index (GCI), the World Happiness Report (WHR) and 33rd in the Global Innovation Index in 2021.[289] The Economist Intelligence Unit (EIU), for example, assigns the UAE rank two regionally in terms of business environment and 22 worldwide. From the 2018 Arab Youth Survey the UAE emerges as the top Arab country in areas such as living, safety and security, economic opportunities, and starting a business, and as an example for other states to emulate.[286]

The weaker points remain the level of education across the UAE population, limitations in the financial and labour markets, barriers to trade and some regulations that hinder business dynamism. The major challenge for the country, though, remains translating investments and strong enabling conditions into knowledge, innovation and creative outputs.[286]

A proportional representation of United Arab Emirates exports, 2019

UAE law does not allow trade unions to exist.[290] The right to collective bargaining and the right to strike are not recognised, and the Ministry of Labour has the power to force workers to go back to work. Migrant workers who participate in a strike can have their work permits cancelled and be deported.[290] Consequently, there are very few anti-discrimination laws in relation to labour issues, with Emiratis – and other GCC Arabs – getting preference in public sector jobs despite lesser credentials than competitors and lower motivation. In fact, just over eighty percent of Emirati workers hold government posts, with many of the rest taking part in state-owned enterprises such as Emirates airlines and Dubai Properties.[291]

The UAE's monetary policy stresses stability and predictability, as the Central Bank of the UAE (CBUAE) keeps a peg to the US Dollar (USD) and moves interest rates close to the Federal Funds Rate. This policy makes sense in the current situation of global and regional economic and geopolitical uncertainty. Also considering the fact that exports have become the main driver of the UAE's economic growth (the contribution of international trade to GDP grew from 31% in 2017 to 33.5% in 2018, outpacing overall GDP growth for the period), and the fact that the AED is currently undervalued, a departure from this policy – and particularly the peg – would negatively affect this important part of the UAE economy in the short term. In the mid- to long term, however, the peg will become less important, as the UAE transitions to a knowledge-based economy – and becomes yet more independent from the oil and gas sector (oil is currently still being traded not in AED, but in USD). On the contrary, it will become more and more important for the Government to have monetary policy at its free disposal to target inflation, shun too heavy reliance on taxes, and avoid situations where decisions on exchange rates and interest rates contradict fiscal policy measures – as has been the case in recent years, where monetary policy has limited fiscal policy effects on economic expansion.[286]

According to Fitch Ratings, the decline in property sector follows risks of progressively worsening the quality of assets in possession with UAE banks, leading the economy to rougher times ahead. Even though as compared to retail and property, UAE banks fared well. The higher US interest rates followed since 2016 – which the UAE currency complies to – have boosted profitability. However, the likelihood of plunging interest rates and increasing provisioning costs on bad loans, point to difficult times ahead for the economy.[292]

Dubai Marina Skyline

Since 2015, economic growth has been more mixed due to a number of factors impacting both demand and supply. In 2017 and 2018 growth has been positive but on a low level of 0.8 and 1.4%, respectively. To support the economy the Government is currently following an expansionary fiscal policy. However, the effects of this policy are partially offset by monetary policy, which has been contractionary. If not for the fiscal stimulus in 2018, the UAE economy would probably have contracted in that year. One of the factors responsible for slower growth has been a credit crunch, which is due to, among other factors, higher interest rates. Government debt has remained on a low level, despite high deficits in a few recent years. Risks related to government debt remain low. Inflation has been picking up in 2017 and 18. Contributing factors were the introduction of a value added tax (VAT) of 5% in 2018 as well as higher commodity prices. Despite the Government's expansionary fiscal policy and a growing economy in 2018 and at the beginning of 2019, prices have been dropping in late 2018 and 2019 owing to oversupply in some sectors of importance to consumer prices.[286]

The UAE has an attractive tax system for companies and wealthy individuals, making it a preferred destination for companies seeking tax avoidance. The NGO Tax Justice Network places them in 2021 in the group of the ten largest tax havens.[293]

Oil and gas

Ruwais Refinery is the fourth-largest single-site oil refinery in the world and the biggest in the Middle East.

The UAE leadership has driven forward economic diversification efforts already before the oil price crash in the 1980s, and the UAE is nowadays the most diversified economy in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region. Although the oil and gas sector does still play an important role in the UAE economy, these efforts have paid off in terms of great resilience during periods of oil price fluctuations and economic turbulence.

In 2018, the oil and gas sector contributed 26% to overall GDP. The introduction of the VAT has provided the Government with an additional source of income – approximately 6% of the total revenue in 2018, or 27 billion United Arab Emirates Dirham (AED) – affording its fiscal policy more independence from oil- and gas-related revenue, which constitutes about 36% of the total government revenue. While the government may still adjust the exact arrangement of the VAT, it is not likely that any new taxes will be introduced in the foreseeable future. Additional taxes would destroy one of the UAE's main enticements for businesses to operate in the country and put a heavy burden on the economy.[286] The UAE emits a lot of carbon dioxide per person compared to other countries.[294] The Barakah nuclear power plant is the first on the Arabian peninsula and expected to reduce the carbon footprint of the country.[295]

Tourism

Tourism acts as a growth sector for the entire UAE economy. Dubai is the top tourism destination in the Middle East.[232] According to the annual MasterCard Global Destination Cities Index, Dubai is the fifth most popular tourism destination in the world.[296] Dubai holds up to 66% share of the UAE's tourism economy, with Abu Dhabi having 16% and Sharjah 10%. Dubai welcomed 10 million tourists in 2013.

The UAE has the most advanced and developed infrastructure in the region.[297] Since the 1980s, the UAE has been spending billions of dollars on infrastructure. These developments are particularly evident in the larger emirates of Abu Dhabi and Dubai. The northern emirates are rapidly following suit, providing major incentives for developers of residential and commercial property.[298][299]

The inbound tourism expenditure in the UAE for 2019 accounted for 118.6 percent share of the outbound tourism expenditure.[299] Since January 6, 2020, tourist visas to the United Arab Emirates are valid for five years.[300] It has been projected that the travel and tourism industry will contribute about 280.6 billion United Arab Emirati dirham to the UAE's GDP by 2028.[299]

Transport

Air

Emirates, one of the world's largest airlines based in Dubai.
Etihad Airways, second largest airline in UAE based in Abu Dhabi.

Dubai International Airport became the busiest airport in the world by international passenger traffic in 2014, overtaking London Heathrow.[301]

Highways

E 311, one of major roads in the UAE.

Abu Dhabi, Dubai, Sharjah, Ajman, Umm Al Quwain, and Ras Al Khaimah are connected by the E11 highway, which is the longest road in the UAE. In Dubai, in addition to the Dubai Metro, The Dubai Tram and Palm Jumeirah Monorail also connect specific parts of the city. There is also a bus, taxi, abra and water taxi network run by RTA. T1, a double-decker tram system in Downtown Dubai, were operational from 2015 to 2019.

Salik, meaning "open" or "clear", is Dubai's electronic toll collection system that was launched in July 2007 and is part of Dubai's traffic congestion management system. Each time one passes through a Salik tolling point, a toll is deducted from the drivers' prepaid toll account using advanced Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) technology. There are four Salik tolling points placed in strategic locations in Dubai: at Al Maktoum Bridge, Al Garhoud Bridge, and along Sheikh Zayed Road at Al Safa and Al Barsha.[302]

Eligibility to drive

Individual customers, citizens and residents, who are above the legal age and medically fit, are eligible to get a driving learning permit and apply for a new driving licence. The minimum age requirement to obtain a driving licence depends on the vehicle, for which you are obtaining the licence. The minimum age requirement is as follows:[303]

Rail

A Dubai Metro train. Dubai Metro is the Arabian peninsula's first rapid transit system and was the world's longest driverless metro network until 2016.

A 1,200 km (750 mi) country-wide railway is under construction which will connect all the major cities and ports.[304] The Dubai Metro is the first urban train network in the Arabian Peninsula.[305]

Sea

The major ports of the United Arab Emirates are Khalifa Port, Zayed Port, Port Jebel Ali, Port Rashid, Port Khalid, Port Saeed, and Port Khor Fakkan.[306] The Emirates are increasingly developing their logistics and ports in order to participate in trade between Europe and China or Africa. For this purpose, ports are being rapidly expanded and investments are being made in their technology.

The Emirates have historically been and currently still are part of the Maritime Silk Road that runs from the Chinese coast to the south via the southern tip of India to Mombasa, from there through the Red Sea via the Suez Canal to the Mediterranean, there to the Upper Adriatic region and the northern Italian hub of Trieste with its rail connections to Central Europe, Eastern Europe and the North Sea.[307][308]

Telecommunications

The UAE is served by two telecommunications operators, Etisalat and Emirates Integrated Telecommunications Company ("du"). Etisalat operated a monopoly until du launched mobile services in February 2007.[309] Internet subscribers were expected to increase from 0.904 million in 2007 to 2.66 million in 2012.[310] The regulator, the Telecommunications Regulatory Authority, mandates filtering websites for religious, political and sexual content.[311]

5G wireless services were installed nationwide in 2019 through a partnership with Huawei.[312]

Culture

An Emirati folk dance, the women flip their hair sideways in brightly coloured traditional dress.

Emirati culture is based on Arabian culture and has been influenced by the cultures of Persia, India, and East Africa.[313] Arabian and Arabian inspired architecture is part of the expression of the local Emirati identity.[314] Arabian influence on Emirati culture is noticeably visible in traditional Emirati architecture and folk arts.[313] For example, the distinctive wind tower which tops traditional Emirati buildings, the barjeel has become an identifying mark of Emirati architecture and is attributed to Arabian influence.[313] This influence is derived both from traders who fled the tax regime in Persia in the early 19th century and from Emirati ownership of ports on the Arabian coast, for instance the Al Qassimi port of Lingeh.[315]

A band performs Yowlah in an Emirati wedding. Yowlah is a cultural dance derived from Arab tribes sword battles.

The United Arab Emirates has a diverse society.[316] Dubai's economy depends more on international trade and tourism, and is more open to visitors, while Abu Dhabi society is more domestic as the city's economy is focused on fossil fuel extraction.[317]

Major holidays in the United Arab Emirates include Eid al Fitr, which marks the end of Ramadan, and National Day (2 December), which marks the formation of the United Arab Emirates.[318] Emirati males prefer to wear a kandura, an ankle-length white tunic woven from wool or cotton, and Emirati women wear an abaya, a black over-garment that covers most parts of the body.[319]

Ancient Emirati poetry was strongly influenced by the eighth-century Arab scholar Al Khalil bin Ahmed. The earliest known poet in the UAE is Ibn Majid, born between 1432 and 1437 in Ras Al-Khaimah. The most famous Emirati writers were Mubarak Al Oqaili (1880–1954), Salem bin Ali al Owais (1887–1959) and Ahmed bin Sulayem (1905–1976). Three other poets from Sharjah, known as the Hirah group, are observed to have been heavily influenced by the Apollo and Romantic poets.[320] The Sharjah International Book Fair is the oldest and largest in the country.

The list of museums in the United Arab Emirates includes some of regional repute, most famously Sharjah with its Heritage District containing 17 museums,[321] which in 1998 was the Cultural Capital of the Arab World.[322] In Dubai, the area of Al Quoz has attracted a number of art galleries as well as museums such as the Salsali Private Museum.[323] Abu Dhabi has established a culture district on Saadiyat Island. Six grand projects are planned, including the Guggenheim Abu Dhabi and the Louvre Abu Dhabi.[324] Dubai also plans to build a Kunsthal museum and a district for galleries and artists.[325]

Emirati culture is a part of the culture of Eastern Arabia. Liwa is a type of music and dance performed locally, mainly in communities that contain descendants of Bantu peoples from the African Great Lakes region.[320] The Dubai Desert Rock Festival is also another major festival consisting of heavy metal and rock artists.[326] The cinema of the United Arab Emirates is minimal but expanding.

Cuisine

Arabic coffee with lugaimat; a traditional Emirati sweet.

The traditional food of the Emirates has always been rice, fish and meat. The people of the United Arab Emirates have adopted most of their foods from other West and South Asian countries including Iran, Saudi Arabia, Pakistan, India and Oman. Seafood has been the mainstay of the Emirati diet for centuries. Meat and rice are other staple foods, with lamb and mutton preferred to goat and beef. Popular beverages are coffee and tea, which can be complemented with cardamom, saffron, or mint to give them a distinctive flavour.[327]

Popular cultural Emirati dishes include threed, machboos, khubisa, khameer and chabab bread among others while lugaimat is a famous Emirati dessert.[328]

With the influence of western culture, fast food has become very popular among young people, to the extent that campaigns have been held to highlight the dangers of fast food excesses.[329] Alcohol is allowed to be served only in hotel restaurants and bars. All nightclubs are permitted to sell alcohol. Specific supermarkets may sell alcohol, but these products are sold in separate sections. Likewise, pork, which is haram (not permitted for Muslims), is sold in separate sections in all major supermarkets. Note that although alcohol may be consumed, it is illegal to be intoxicated in public or drive a motor vehicle with any trace of alcohol in the blood.[330]

Sports

Formula One is particularly popular in the United Arab Emirates, and a Grand Prix is annually held at the Yas Marina Circuit in Yas Island in Abu Dhabi. The race takes place in the evening, and was the first ever Grand Prix to start in daylight and finish at night.[331] Other popular sports include camel racing, falconry, endurance riding, and tennis.[332] The emirate of Dubai is also home to two major golf courses: the Dubai Golf Club and Emirates Golf Club.

In the past, child camel jockeys were used, leading to widespread criticism. Eventually, the UAE passed laws banning the use of children for the sport, leading to the prompt removal of almost all child jockeys.[333] Recently robot jockeys have been introduced to overcome the problem of child camel jockeys which was an issue of human rights violations. Ansar Burney is often praised for the work he has done in this area.[334]

Football

Football is a popular sport in the UAE. Al Nasr, Al Ain, Al Wasl, Sharjah, Al Wahda, and Shabab Al Ahli are the most popular teams and enjoy the reputation of long-time regional champions.[335] The United Arab Emirates Football Association was established in 1971 and since then has dedicated its time and effort to promoting the game, organising youth programmes and improving the abilities of not only its players, but also the officials and coaches involved with its regional teams. The UAE qualified for the FIFA World Cup in 1990, along with Egypt. It was the third consecutive World Cup with two Arab nations qualifying, after Kuwait and Algeria in 1982, and Iraq and Algeria again in 1986. The UAE has won the Gulf Cup Championship twice: the first cup won in January 2007 held in Abu Dhabi and the second in January 2013, held in Bahrain.[336] The country hosted the 2019 AFC Asian Cup. The UAE team went all the way to the semi-finals, where they were defeated by the eventual champions, Qatar.

Cricket

Cricket is one of the most popular sports in the UAE, largely because of the expatriate population from the SAARC countries, the United Kingdom, and Australia. The headquarters of the International Cricket Council (ICC) have been located in the Dubai Sports City complex since 2005, including the ICC Academy which was established in 2009.[337] There are a number of international cricket venues in the UAE, which are frequently used for international tournaments and "neutral" bilateral series due to the local climate and Dubai's status as a transport hub. Notable international tournaments hosted by the UAE have included the 2014 Under-19 Cricket World Cup, the 2021 ICC Men's T20 World Cup, and three editions of the Asia Cup (1984, 1995 and 2018). Notable grounds include the Sharjah Cricket Association Stadium in Sharjah,[338] Sheikh Zayed Cricket Stadium in Abu Dhabi, and Dubai International Cricket Stadium in Dubai.[339]

The Emirates Cricket Board (ECB) became a member of the ICC in 1990. The UAE national cricket team has qualified for the Cricket World Cup on two occasions (1996 and 2015)[340][341] and the ICC Men's T20 World Cup on one occasion (2014). The national women's team is similarly one of the strongest associate teams in Asia, notably participating in the 2018 ICC Women's World Twenty20 Qualifier.

Following the 2009 attack on the Sri Lanka national cricket team, the UAE served as the de facto home of the Pakistan national cricket team for nearly a decade, as well as hosting the Pakistan Super League.[342][343] The UAE has also hosted one full edition of Indian Premier League (IPL) in 2020 and two partial editions of the Indian Premier League (IPL) in 2014 and 2021.[344]

Education

University City Hall is the largest hall located in University City in Sharjah. Graduation ceremonies of American University of Sharjah, University of Sharjah, and Higher Colleges of Technology are notably held here.

The education system through secondary level is monitored by the Ministry of Education in all emirates except Abu Dhabi, where it falls under the authority of the Abu Dhabi Education Council. It consists of primary schools, middle schools and high schools. The public schools are government-funded and the curriculum is created to match the United Arab Emirates' development goals. The medium of instruction in the public school is Arabic with emphasis on English as a second language. There are also many private schools which are internationally accredited. Public schools in the country are free for citizens of the UAE, while the fees for private schools vary.

The higher education system is monitored by the Ministry of Higher Education. The ministry also is responsible for admitting students to its undergraduate institutions.[345] The adult literacy rate in 2015 was 93.8%.[346]

The UAE has shown a strong interest in improving education and research. Enterprises include the establishment of the CERT Research Centres and the Masdar Institute of Science and Technology and Institute for Enterprise Development.[347] According to the QS Rankings, the top-ranking universities in the country are the United Arab Emirates University (421–430th worldwide), Khalifa University[348] (441–450th worldwide), the American University of Sharjah (431–440th) and University of Sharjah (551–600th worldwide).[349] United Arab Emirates was ranked 33rd in the Global Innovation Index in 2021, up from 36th in 2019.[289][350][351][352]

Demographics

Residential villas in the Palm Jumeirah palm fronds in Dubai.

According to an estimate by the World Bank, the UAE's population in 2020 was 9,890,400. Immigrants accounted for 88.52% while Emiratis made up the remaining 11.48%.[353] This unique imbalance is due to the country's exceptionally high net migration rate of 21.71, the world's highest.[354] UAE citizenship is very difficult to obtain other than by filiation and only granted under very special circumstances.[355]

The UAE is ethnically diverse. The five most populous nationalities in the emirates of Dubai, Sharjah, and Ajman are Indian (25%), Pakistani (12%), Emirati (9%), Bangladeshi (7%), and Filipino (5%).[356] Immigrants from Europe, Australia, Northern America and Latin America make up 500,000 of the population.[357][358] More than 100,000 British nationals live in the country.[359] The rest of the population are from other Arab states.[5][360]

About 88% of the population of the United Arab Emirates is urban.[361] The average life expectancy was 76.7 in 2012, higher than for any other Arab country.[362][363] With a male/female sex ratio of 2.2 males for each female in the total population and 2.75 to 1 for the 15–65 age group, the UAE's gender imbalance is second highest in the world after Qatar.[364]

Religion

Sheikh Zayed Mosque in Abu Dhabi.

Islam is the largest and the official state religion of the UAE. The government follows a policy of tolerance toward other religions and rarely interferes in the religious activities of non-Muslims.[365]

There are more Sunni than Shia Muslims in the United Arab Emirates,[366] and 85% of the Emirati population are Sunni Muslims. The vast majority of the remainder 15% are Shia Muslims, who are concentrated in the Emirates of Dubai and Sharjah. Although no official statistics are available for the breakdown between Sunni and Shia Muslims among noncitizen residents, media estimates suggest less than 20% of the noncitizen Muslim population are Shia.[367] Sheikh Zayed Mosque in Abu Dhabi is the largest mosque in the country and a major tourist attraction. Ibadi is common among Omanis in the UAE, while Sufi influences exist as well.[368]

Roman Catholics and Protestants form significant proportions of the Christian minority. The country has at least 45 churches.[369] Many Christians in the United Arab Emirates are of Asian, African, and European origin, along with fellow Middle Eastern countries such as Lebanon, Syria, and Egypt.[370] The United Arab Emirates forms part of the Apostolic Vicariate of Southern Arabia and the Vicar Apostolic Bishop Paul Hinder is based in Abu Dhabi.[371]

There is a small Jewish community in the United Arab Emirates. There is only one known synagogue, in Dubai, which has been open since 2008. The synagogue also welcomes visitors.[372] As of 2019, according to Rabbi Marc Schneier of the Foundation for Ethnic Understanding, it is estimated that there are about 150 families to 3,000 Jews who live and worship freely in the UAE.[373]

Religions in UAE in 2010 (Pew Research)[374][375]
Religion Percent
Islam
76%
Christianity
13%
Hinduism
7%
Buddhism
2%
Other
1%
None
1%

South Asians in the United Arab Emirates constitute the largest ethnic group in the country.[376] Over 2 million Indian migrants (mostly from the southern states of Kerala, Andhra Pradesh, Coastal Karnataka and Tamil Nadu) are estimated to be living in the UAE.[377] There is currently only one Hindu temple in the UAE in Dubai, the Hindu Temple, Dubai (referred to locally as Shiva and Krishna Mandir) located in Dubai. Another temple, the BAPS Hindu Mandir Abu Dhabi is a Hindu temple that is being built by the BAPS Swaminarayan Sansthan in Abu Dhabi.

Other religions also exist in the United Arab Emirates, including Sikhism, Buddhism, Judaism, Baháʼís and Druze.[206]

The UAE Minister of Foreign Affairs and International Co-operation, Abdullah bin Zayed, announced in 2019 the design and construction plan of the Abrahamic Family House, which will serve as an interfaith complex that houses a synagogue, mosque, and a church on Saadiyat Island in Abu Dhabi.[378]

Languages

Arabic is the national language of the United Arab Emirates. The Gulf dialect of Arabic is spoken natively by Emirati people.[379] The area was occupied by the British until 1971 and, with many expatriates resident, English is the primary lingua franca in the UAE. Consequently, a knowledge of English is a requirement when applying for most local jobs.

Health

The life Expectancy at birth in the UAE is at 76.96 years.[380] Cardiovascular disease is the principal cause of death in the UAE, constituting 28% of total deaths; other major causes are accidents and injuries, malignancies, and congenital anomalies.[381] According to World Health Organisation data from 2016, 34.5% of adults in the UAE are clinically obese, with a body mass index (BMI) score of 30 or more.[382]

In February 2008, the Ministry of Health unveiled a five-year health strategy for the public health sector in the northern emirates, which fall under its purview and which, unlike Abu Dhabi and Dubai, do not have separate healthcare authorities. The strategy focuses on unifying healthcare policy and improving access to healthcare services at reasonable cost, at the same time reducing dependence on overseas treatment. The ministry plans to add three hospitals to the current 14, and 29 primary healthcare centres to the current 86. Nine were scheduled to open in 2008.[383]

The introduction of mandatory health insurance in Abu Dhabi for expatriates and their dependents was a major driver in reform of healthcare policy. Abu Dhabi nationals were brought under the scheme from 1 June 2008 and Dubai followed for its government employees. Eventually, under federal law, every Emirati and expatriate in the country will be covered by compulsory health insurance under a unified mandatory scheme.[384] The country has benefited from medical tourists from all over the Cooperation Council for the Arab States of the Gulf. The UAE attracts medical tourists seeking cosmetic surgery and advanced procedures, cardiac and spinal surgery, and dental treatment, as health services have higher standards than other Arab countries in the Persian Gulf.[385]

Largest cities

 
 
Largest cities or towns in the United Arab Emirates
2021 Calculation
Rank Name Emirate Pop.
Dubai
Dubai
Abu Dhabi
Abu Dhabi
1 Dubai Dubai 3,386,941 Sharjah
Sharjah
Al Ain
Al Ain
2 Abu Dhabi Abu Dhabi 1,807,000
3 Sharjah Sharjah 1,274,749
4 Al Ain Abu Dhabi 766,936
5 Ajman Ajman 490,035
6 Ras Al Khaimah Ras al Khaimah 115,949
7 Fujairah Fujairah 97,226
8 Umm Al Quwain Umm Al Quwain 61,700
9 Dibba Al-Fujairah Fujairah 41,017
10 Khor Fakkan Sharjah 39,151

See also

References

  1. ^ "Fact sheet". United Arab Emirates. U.ae. Retrieved 31 August 2020.
  2. ^ "A mandatory requirement for an English translation under Abu Dhabi Courts". STA Law Firm. Retrieved 26 February 2022.
  3. ^ "UAE Population and Demographics". Dubai Online. 2020.
  4. ^ GMI Blogger. "United Arab Emirates Population Statistics 2022". Global Media Insight - Dubai Digital Interactive Agency.[better source needed]
  5. ^ a b "United Arab Emirates". CIA World Factbook. 10 May 2022.
  6. ^ Stewart, Dona J. (2013). The Middle East Today: Political, Geographical and Cultural Perspectives. London and New York: Routledge. p. 155. ISBN 978-0415782432.
  7. ^ Day, Alan John (1996). Political Parties of The World. Stockton. p. 599. ISBN 1561591440.
  8. ^ "United Arab Emirates Constitution". UAE Ministry of Justice. Retrieved 10 October 2018.
  9. ^ "Sheikh Mohamed bin Zayed Al Nahyan elected as new UAE president". Gulf News. 14 May 2022. Retrieved 14 May 2022.
  10. ^ "United Arab Emirates Population (2020)". u.ae.
  11. ^ a b c d "United Arab Emirates". International Monetary Fund.
  12. ^ "GINI index (World Bank estimate) – United Arab Emirates". data.worldbank.org. World Bank. Retrieved 30 March 2020.
  13. ^ "Human Development Report 2020" (PDF). United Nations Development Programme. 15 December 2020. Retrieved 15 December 2020.
  14. ^ "The Federal Boundaries of the United Arab Emirates" (PDF).
  15. ^ "United Arab Emirates's Constitution of 1971 with Amendments through 2004" (PDF). ConstituteProject.org. Retrieved 29 October 2017.
  16. ^ Habboush, Mahmoud. (10 October 2013) Call to naturalise some expats stirs anxiety in the UAE. Uk.reuters.com. Retrieved 10 October 2015
  17. ^ "Labor Migration in the United Arab Emirates: Challenges and Responses". migrationpolicy.org. 18 September 2013. Retrieved 12 February 2016.
  18. ^ "United Arab Emirates country profile". BBC News. 28 September 2016. Retrieved 23 October 2016.
  19. ^ "United Arab Emirates Population (2022)". www.worldometers.info.
  20. ^ a b thedigitalphilatelist (8 January 2021). "United Arab Emirates". The Digital Philatelist. Retrieved 8 July 2021.
  21. ^ "Production of Crude Oil including Lease Condensate 2016" (CVS download). U.S. Energy Information Administration. Retrieved 27 May 2017.
  22. ^ U.S. Energy Information Administration, International Energy Statistics, accessed 17 January 2019.
  23. ^ a b "United Arab Emirates profile". BBC News. 14 November 2012.
  24. ^ "IMF Data Mapper". Imf.org. Retrieved 12 February 2016.
  25. ^ Augustine, Babu Das (1 January 2018). "New era in UAE as VAT takes effect". GulfNews. Retrieved 12 July 2018.
  26. ^ "United Arab Emirates Archives". Amnesty International. Retrieved 3 April 2022.
  27. ^ a b c "2013 Human Rights Reports: United Arab Emirates". US Department of State. Sharia (Islamic law) courts, which adjudicate criminal and family law, have the option of imposing flogging as punishment for adultery, prostitution, consensual premarital sex, pregnancy outside marriage, defamation of character, and drug or alcohol abuse.
  28. ^ "Report on the situation of journalists in the UAE Input for the Secretary General Report on the safety of journalists and the issue of impunity" (PDF). ohchr.org. Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights. Retrieved 12 May 2022.
  29. ^ Heard-Bey, Frauke (2004). From Trucial States to United Arab Emirates. Motivate. p. 370. ISBN 978-1860631672.
  30. ^ Pennington, Roberta (5 February 2014). "UAE archaeologist discovers the Swiss Army knife from 130,000 years ago". The National. Retrieved 19 February 2017.
  31. ^ "Abu Dhabi Islands Archaeological Survey (ADIAS)". Adias-uae.com. Retrieved 12 February 2016.
  32. ^ Woolley, Leonard (1963). The Early History of Civilisation. UNESCO. p. 611.
  33. ^ Bey, Frauke (1996). From Trucial States to United Arab Emirates. Longman. UK. p. 127. ISBN 978-0582277281.
  34. ^ Bey, Frauke (1996). From Trucial States to United Arab Emirates. Longman. UK. pp. 127–128. ISBN 978-0582277281.
  35. ^ Ibrahim Abed; Peter Hellyer (2001). United Arab Emirates, a New Perspective. Trident Ltd. pp. 83–84. ISBN 978-1-900724-47-0.
  36. ^ Bey, Frauke (1996). From Trucial States to United Arab Emirates. Longman. UK. pp. 22–23. ISBN 978-0582277281.
  37. ^ Thomas, Jen (12 December 2012). "Ancient secrets of Sir Bani Yas unveiled". The National. Archived from the original on 22 December 2015. Retrieved 19 February 2017.
  38. ^ Hawley, Donald (1971). The Trucial States. Allen & Unwin. UK. pp. 48–51. ISBN 978-0049530058.
  39. ^ Lorimer, John (1908). The Gazetteer of the Persian Gulf, Oman and Central Arabia. Government of India. Bombay. pp. 1432–1436.
  40. ^ Bey, Frauke (1996). From Trucial States to United Arab Emirates. Longman. UK. p. 43. ISBN 978-0582277281.
  41. ^ 'Kashf Al Gumma' "Annals of Oman from Early times to the year 1728 AD" – Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, 1874
  42. ^ Ibn Ruzaiq, translated by GP Badger, "History of the Imams and Sayids of Oman", London 1871
  43. ^ Bey, Frauke (1996). From Trucial States to United Arab Emirates. Longman. UK. p. 282. ISBN 978-0582277281.
  44. ^ Baker, Randall (1979), King Husain and the Kingdom of Hejaz, The Oleander Press, Great Britain
  45. ^ Biral, Bilal Emre (2009). The British Threat to the Ottoman Presence in the Persian Gulf during the Era of Abdülhamid II and the Responses toward it. Ankara: Middle East Technical University. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.633.1663.
  46. ^ "November 3, 2008 – The UAE is the old Pirate Coast. Not much has changed". Wayne Madsen Report. Archived from the original on 8 December 2011. Retrieved 12 February 2016.
  47. ^ Al Qasimi, Sultan (1986). The Myth of Arab Piracy in the Gulf. Croom Helm. UK. ISBN 978-0709921066.
  48. ^ "British Era". www.na.ae. Retrieved 18 July 2018.
  49. ^ United Arab Emirates – The Economy. Library of Congress Country Studies. Retrieved 14 July 2013.
  50. ^ Morton, Michael Quentin (2016). Keepers of the Golden Shore: A History of the United Arab Emirates. London: Reaktion Books. pp. 49–50. ISBN 978-1780235806. Retrieved 19 February 2017.
  51. ^ "UAE History & Traditions: Pearls & pearling". UAEinteract. Archived from the original on 6 February 2016. Retrieved 12 February 2016.
  52. ^ Heard, David (2013). From Pearls to Oil. Motivate. UAE. pp. 41–42. ISBN 978-1860633119.
  53. ^ "Al Khaleej News Paper". Archived from the original on 3 August 2008.
  54. ^ "Trucial States Council until 1971 (United Arab Emirates)". Flags of the World. Archived from the original on 29 April 2011.
  55. ^ Cousteau, Jacques (August 1955). "Calypso explores for underwater oil". National Geographic Magazine. CVIII (2). Retrieved 19 February 2017.
  56. ^ Morton, Michael Quentin (June 2015). "Calypso in the Arabian Gulf: Jacques Cousteau's Undersea Survey of 1954". Liwa. 7 (13): 3–28. Retrieved 27 November 2016.
  57. ^ Butt, Gerald. "Oil and Gas in the UAE" (PDF). UAE Interact. Archived from the original (PDF) on 23 November 2015. Retrieved 19 November 2014.
  58. ^ "United Arab Emirates (06/07)". State.gov. Retrieved 12 February 2016.
  59. ^ Gray, Matthew (2014). Global Security Watch – Saudi Arabia. Santa Barbara: ABC-CLIO. p. 99. ISBN 978-0-313-38699-2. Retrieved 20 June 2015.
  60. ^ "Historic UAE-Oman accord involves 272km of border". Gulf News. 22 July 2008. Retrieved 19 February 2017.
  61. ^ Heard, David (2013). From Pearls to Oil. Motivate. UAE. pp. 413–416. ISBN 978-1860633119.
  62. ^ "Middle East | Country profile: United Arab Emirates". BBC News. 11 March 2009.
  63. ^ Gornall, Jonathan (2 December 2011). "Sun sets on British Empire as UAE raises its flag". The National. Abu Dhabi.
  64. ^ "History the United Arab Emirates (UAE) – TEN Guide". Guide.theemiratesnetwork.com. 11 February 1972. Archived from the original on 8 June 2009. Retrieved 23 June 2009.
  65. ^ Mirfendereski, Guive (25 September 2012). "Tonb Islands (Greater and Lesser), two tiny islands of arguable strategic importance in the eastern Persian Gulf, south of the western tip of Qešm island". Archived from the original on 4 July 2015.
  66. ^ Krane, Jim (2009). City of Gold: Dubai and the Dream of Capitalism. pp. 81–84.
  67. ^ "Bahrain – Independence". Country-data.com.
  68. ^ Smith, Simon C. (2004). Britain's Revival and Fall in the Gulf: Kuwait, Bahrain, Qatar, and the Trucial States, 1950–71. Routledge. p. 64. ISBN 978-0-415-33192-0.
  69. ^ "Trucial Oman or Trucial States – Origin of Trucial Oman or Trucial States | Encyclopedia.com: Oxford Dictionary of World Place Names". Encyclopedia.com. Archived from the original on 19 November 2011.
  70. ^ De Butts, Freddie (1995). Now the Dust Has Settled. Tabb House. p. 228. ISBN 978-1873951132.
  71. ^ "International Relations Abdullah Mohamed Al Maainah". Czech Gulf Business Council. 12 March 2018. Archived from the original on 25 March 2019. Retrieved 25 March 2019.
  72. ^ Prados, Alfred B. (2002). "Iraqi Challenges and U.S. Responses: March 1991 through October 2002" (PDF). Library of Congress. Archived from the original on 18 August 2006.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: unfit URL (link)
  73. ^ Foley, Sean (March 1999). "The UAE: Political Issues and Security Dilemmas" (PDF). Middle East Review of International Affairs. 3 (1). Archived from the original (PDF) on 13 June 2013. Retrieved 8 April 2013.
  74. ^ "United Arab Emirates profile – Timeline". BBC News. 14 November 2012.
  75. ^ "Veteran Gulf ruler Zayed dies". BBC News. 2 November 2004.
  76. ^ a b c d Bakr, Amena (21 July 2013). "Woman jailed in Dubai after reporting rape hopes to warn others". Reuters. Retrieved 5 November 2013.
  77. ^ "Brotherhood 'sought Islamist state in UAE'". 21 September 2012. Retrieved 20 November 2012.
  78. ^ a b "United Arab Emirates: Silencing dissent in the United Arab Emirates (UAE)". Amnesty International. Retrieved 12 February 2016.
  79. ^ Hammond, Ashley; Chaudhary, Suchitra Bajpai; Hilotin, Jay (10 February 2020). "Watch: How the first coronavirus case in UAE was cured". Gulf News. Retrieved 11 February 2020.
  80. ^ "Coronavirus: UAE shuts malls for two weeks". gulfnews.com.
  81. ^ "Why UAE school closures are an important opportunity to fight coronavirus". The National. 11 March 2020. Retrieved 13 April 2020.
  82. ^ "Coronavirus: Prayers at mosques and all other places of worship in UAE suspended". gulfnews.com. Retrieved 13 April 2020.
  83. ^ "Coronavirus: UAE imposes night curfew as it carries out disinfection campaign". Middle East Eye. Retrieved 26 March 2020.
  84. ^ "Dubai's Emirates cuts passenger flights to 13 destinations". Associated Press. 22 March 2020.
  85. ^ Kerr, Simeon (5 July 2020). "UAE merges ministries in ambitious government restructuring". Financial Times. Retrieved 5 July 2020.
  86. ^ "Israel and UAE strike historic deal to normalise relations". BBC News. 13 August 2020.
  87. ^ "Who is MBZ, the UAE's new president?". www.aljazeera.com.
  88. ^ "UAE Oil and Gas". Uae.gov.ae. 19 June 1999. Archived from the original on 5 July 2008.
  89. ^ "Saudi-UAE Disputes". Arabmediawatch.com. 21 August 1974. Archived from the original on 8 April 2010.
  90. ^ "UAE official calls for international action to end "Iranian occupation" of disputed islands". Middle East Institute. Retrieved 27 July 2021.
  91. ^ "UAE Disputes, International UAE Disputes, UAE Boundary Dispute, UAE National Disputes, UAE Emirate Disputes, Claims Three Islands, Abu Musa Island, Greater & Lesser Tumb, The History of Islands, Human Resources UAE, Arab Emirates". www.uaeprison.com. Retrieved 25 June 2018.
  92. ^ Oxford Business Group (2016). The Report: Abu Dhabi 2015. Oxford Business Group. p. 17. ISBN 978-1910068250.
  93. ^ Brinkmann, Robert; Garren, Sandra J. (2018). The Palgrave Handbook of Sustainability: Case Studies and Practical Solutions. Springer. p. 806. ISBN 978-3319713892.
  94. ^ D'Avanzo, Carolyn (2008). Mosby's Pocket Guide to Cultural Health Assessment. Elsevier Health Sciences. p. 751. ISBN 978-0323086042.
  95. ^ Taylor & Francis Group (2003). The Middle East and North Africa 2004. Psychology Press. p. 1175. ISBN 1857431847.
  96. ^ Schulz, Stephan; Horovitz, Marcel; Rausch, Randolf; Michelsen, Nils; Mallast, Ulf; Köhne, Maximilian; Siebert, Christian; Schüth, Christoph; Al-Saud, Mohammed; Merz, Ralf (1 December 2015). "Groundwater evaporation from salt pans: Examples from the eastern Arabian Peninsula". Journal of Hydrology. 531: 792–801. Bibcode:2015JHyd..531..792S. doi:10.1016/j.jhydrol.2015.10.048. ISSN 0022-1694.
  97. ^ iContainers (4 April 2020). "Top 5 Ports in United Arab Emirates". iContainers. Retrieved 17 August 2021.
  98. ^ Lancaster, William; Lancaster, Fidelity (2011). Honour is in Contentment: Life Before Oil in Ras Al-Khaimah (UAE) and Some Neighbouring Regions. Walter de Gruyter. ISBN 978-3-11-022339-2.
  99. ^ "Empty Quarter". earthobservatory.nasa.gov. 31 August 2008. Retrieved 6 September 2021.
  100. ^ "The accidental lake: Birdwatcher's oasis or ecological disaster?". CNN. 14 March 2013. Retrieved 6 August 2013.
  101. ^ Dinerstein, Eric; et al. (2017). "An Ecoregion-Based Approach to Protecting Half the Terrestrial Realm". BioScience. 67 (6): 534–545. doi:10.1093/biosci/bix014. ISSN 0006-3568. PMC 5451287. PMID 28608869.
  102. ^ "UAE Climate". Manmm.net. Archived from the original on 12 January 2016.
  103. ^ "Weather in Abu Dhabi". Abudhabi.ms. 8 March 2007. Archived from the original on 29 April 2009.
  104. ^ "In Pictures | Flooding in the UAE". BBC News. 15 January 2008.
  105. ^ Middle East | Cold snap brings Gulf rare snow. BBC News (30 December 2004). Retrieved 10 October 2015.
  106. ^ Global warming or wonder! Hail the snow in Abu Dhabi : World, News – India Today. Indiatoday.intoday.in. Retrieved 10 October 2015.
  107. ^ Middle East snow, extreme heatwaves and UAE fog: what's going on with the weather? | The National. Thenational.ae (29 January 2013). Retrieved 10 October 2015.
  108. ^ Nazzal,gando (24 January 2009). "Heavy snowfall on Ras Al Khaimah's Jebel Jais mountain cluster". Gulf News.
  109. ^ Herb, Michael (2009). "A Nation of Bureaucrats: Political Participation and Economic Diversification in Kuwait and the United Arab Emirates". International Journal of Middle East Studies. 41 (3): 375–395. doi:10.1017/S0020743809091119. ISSN 1471-6380. S2CID 154366494.
  110. ^ Ledstrup, Martin (2019). "Nationalism and Nationhood in the United Arab Emirates". Palgrave: 10. doi:10.1007/978-3-319-91653-8. ISBN 978-3-319-91652-1. S2CID 158959849.
  111. ^ "Hypocrisy of Dubai's World Tolerance Summit". Human Rights Watch. 14 November 2018. Retrieved 6 April 2021.
  112. ^ "United Arab Emirates says it will offer citizenship to some". Associated Press. 30 January 2021. Retrieved 6 April 2021.
  113. ^ Mazzetti, Mark and Hager, Emily B. (14 May 2011). "Secret Desert Force Set Up by Blackwater's Founder". The New York Times. The United Arab Emirates – an autocracy with the sheen of a progressive, modern state – are closely allied with the United States, and American officials indicated that the battalion program had some support in Washington.{{cite news}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  114. ^ Krane, Jim (15 September 2009). City of Gold: Dubai and the Dream of Capitalism. St. Martin's Publishing Group. p. 10. ISBN 978-1-4299-1899-2.
  115. ^ a b Stack, Liam (30 April 2017). "Dubai Introduces Its Own Font, Lauding Free Expression It Does Not Permit". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 25 May 2021.
  116. ^ a b "United Arab Emirates Reports". Freedom House. 22 August 2014. Archived from the original on 13 May 2015. Retrieved 7 May 2015.
  117. ^ "UAE Government: Political system". UAEinteract. Archived from the original on 13 February 2016. Retrieved 12 February 2016.
  118. ^ "UAE Government: Political system". UAEinteract. Archived from the original on 13 February 2016. Retrieved 12 February 2016.
  119. ^ "UAE". Arabruleoflaw.org. Archived from the original on 3 May 2019. Retrieved 12 February 2016.
  120. ^ UAE federal eGovernment. "Service Channels – The UAE Government Official Portal". Retrieved 8 September 2014.
  121. ^ "دليل أعمال نظام مجلس الوزراء" (PDF). United Arab Emirates Cabinet. January 2010.
  122. ^ "Monthly ranking of women in national parliaments". ipu.org. Switzerland: Inter-Parliamentary Union. Retrieved 19 February 2022.
  123. ^ "Monthly ranking of women in national parliaments". ipu.org. Switzerland: Inter-Parliamentary Union. Retrieved 19 February 2022.
  124. ^ "Proportion of women parliamentarians worldwide reaches 'all-time high'". UN.org. United Nations. 5 March 2021. Retrieved 19 February 2022.
  125. ^ "UAE's tolerance model has 'potential to become a global movement for good': Sheikh Nahyan". Emirates News Agency. 4 February 2019.
  126. ^ "This Country Just Appointed a Minister Of Happiness". Fortune.com. 10 February 2016.
  127. ^ "An Inside Look at the First Nation With a State Minister for Artificial Intelligence". Futurism.com. 11 December 2017.
  128. ^ "Ministry of Possibilities". U.AE. 24 September 2019.
  129. ^ "Mohammed bin Rashid Launches 'Ministry of Possibilities' to Develop Radical Solutions for Government's Key Challenges". UAE Cabinet. 2020.
  130. ^ "Women shining in new UAE Cabinet – Khaleej Times". www.khaleejtimes.com. Retrieved 11 February 2016.
  131. ^ "Why Ministries for Happiness, Tolerance, Youth and the Future?". United Arab Emirates Cabinet.
  132. ^ "The Federal National Council". U.AE. 3 February 2020.
  133. ^ "UAE Federal e-Government Portal". Government.ae. Archived from the original on 27 October 2005.
  134. ^ Sheikh Khalifa: UAE's Federal National Council to be 50 per cent women The National, 8 December 2018
  135. ^ "The evolution of Emirati foreign policy (1971-2020): The unexpected rise of a small state with boundless ambitions" (PDF). SciencesPo. 2020.
  136. ^ "King Hamad hails strong Bahrain-UAE ties in meeting with Abu Dhabi crown prince". Saudi Gazette. 3 August 2021.
  137. ^ "Strong bilateral relations serve the strategic interests of both China and the UAE". The National.
  138. ^ "Egypt and U.A.E. Relations". Egypt State Information Service Sis.gov.eg. Archived from the original on 9 January 2009.
  139. ^ "France strengthens its bond with UAE". The National. 19 December 2008.
  140. ^ "India-UAE Relations: Poised to Climb to New Heights". Middle East Institute. 23 March 2021.
  141. ^ "Jordan-UAE ties a 'strong guarantor' for security, peace — ambassador". The Jordan Times. 12 April 2021.
  142. ^ "UAE FM terms ties with Pakistan "unique case in Arab-Asian relations"". Tribune. 20 December 2020.
  143. ^ "Why the Relationship Between Russia and the United Arab Emirates is Strengthening". Responsible Statecraft. 24 January 2020.
  144. ^ The New Yorker (2 April 2018). "A Saudi Prince's Quest to Remake the Middle East".
  145. ^ "US states play 'critical' role in widening bilateral ties with the UAE". Arabian Business. 16 May 2021.
  146. ^ "Konfliktbarometer 2001" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 29 February 2008. Retrieved 1 June 2016.. Heidelberger Institut für Internationale Konfliktforschung
  147. ^ "Relations with UAE get wider, deeper". Pakistan Observer. 26 November 2008. Archived from the original on 26 June 2009.
  148. ^ "UAE to restore Qatar trade and travel links 'within a week' after row ends". BBC. 7 January 2021.
  149. ^ "Israel and UAE strike historic deal". BBC News. 13 August 2020. Retrieved 13 August 2020.
  150. ^ "With President Trump's help, Israel and the United Arab Emirates reach historic deal to normalize relations". Reuters. 13 August 2020. Retrieved 13 August 2020.
  151. ^ Staff, Toi (16 September 2020). "Full text of the Abraham Accords signed by Israel, the UAE and Bahrain". The Times of Israel. Retrieved 10 October 2020.
  152. ^ "Syria's Assad Makes Surprise Visit to the U.A.E. as Arab Ties Warm". The Washington Post. Retrieved 19 March 2022.
  153. ^ "Syrian president Bashar al-Assad visits UAE in attempt to come in from the cold". The Guardian. Retrieved 18 March 2022.
  154. ^ "Assad: Syria's leader makes historic visit to UAE". BBC. Retrieved 19 March 2022.
  155. ^ "UAE confirms discussions with France on purchase of Rafale aircraft". Emirates News Agency. 5 June 2008. Archived from the original on 9 May 2013.
  156. ^ "In the UAE, the United States has a quiet, potent ally nicknamed 'Little Sparta'". The Washington Post. Retrieved 15 September 2018.
  157. ^ "UAE and Egypt behind bombing raids against Libyan militias, say US officials". The Guardian. 26 August 2014.
  158. ^ "Libya migrant attack: UN investigators suspect foreign jet bombed centre". BBC News. 6 November 2019.
  159. ^ "UAE implicated in lethal drone strike in Libya". BBC News. 27 August 2020.
  160. ^ "Libya no-fly zone: Coalition firepower". BBC News. 21 October 2011. Retrieved 25 December 2014.
  161. ^ The National (12 July 2018). "Nato officially initiates UAE into Afghan mission".
  162. ^ "Saudi warplanes bomb Houthi positions in Yemen". Al Arabiya. 25 March 2015. Archived from the original on 2 April 2015. Retrieved 25 March 2015.
  163. ^ Winch, Jessica (24 September 2014). "US launches air strikes against Isil in Syria". The Telegraph. Archived from the original on 10 January 2022.
  164. ^ "Dubai 2007: UAE shows off its most advanced Falcons". Flightglobal. 11 November 2007.
  165. ^ "One Tough Tank: Why France's Leclerc Is One of the Best on the Planet". nationalinterest.org. 19 February 2019.
  166. ^ "UAE extends compulsory military service to 16 months". Reuters. 8 July 2018.
  167. ^ "UAE, Bahrain say 50 soldiers killed in Yemen attack". Reuters. 4 September 2015. Retrieved 17 September 2015.
  168. ^ "U.N. Commission on Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice: United Arab Emirates". Human Rights Voices. Archived from the original on 11 November 2020. Retrieved 12 February 2016.
  169. ^ Country Reports on Human Rights Practices for 2007. Government Printing Office. 2008. p. 2092. ISBN 978-0-16-081399-3.
  170. ^ "UAE: Judicial corporal punishment by flogging". World Corporal Punishment Research. Retrieved 12 February 2016.
  171. ^ "Dh500,000 expat verbal abuse case to be retried". The National. 8 December 2010. In the UAE, only verbal abuse pertaining to the sexual honour of a person would be tried under Sharia. For guilt to be proven, the attack must have been made in public and one reliable witness must testify. If convicted, a person would be sentenced to 80 lashes and would never be accepted as a valid witness in a Sharia-based case.
  172. ^ Illicit lovers sentenced to 100 lashes each. GulfNews.com (15 November 2010). Retrieved 26 November 2015.
  173. ^ Amnesty International Report 2007 – United Arab Emirates. Refworld (23 May 2007). Retrieved 26 November 2015.
  174. ^ "2 men to be lashed for hitting woman in Fujairah". Emirates 247. March 2015.
  175. ^ "Drunk worker rapes 2-year-old girl in Abu Dhabi". Emirates247.com. January 2014.
  176. ^ "Emirati man to be lashed, executed, for murder and drinking alcohol". Gulf News. May 2012.
  177. ^ Man appeals 80 lashes for drinking alcohol in Abu Dhabi. Thenational.ae (9 August 2012). Retrieved 26 November 2015.
  178. ^ Girl to receive 60 lashes for illicit sex. GulfNews.com (20 June 2007). Retrieved 26 November 2015.
  179. ^ "Motorist sentenced to 80 lashes for drink driving". 7days.ae. 26 November 2012. Archived from the original on 23 September 2015.
  180. ^ a b ""I Already Bought You": Abuse and Exploitation of Female Migrant Domestic Workers in the United Arab Emirates". Human Rights Watch. 22 October 2014.{{cite journal}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  181. ^ Court jails pregnant Filipina in Fujairah. Emirates247.com (9 October 2013). Retrieved 26 November 2015.
  182. ^ "Drink-drive student to get 80 lashes". Khaleej Times. 27 March 2013. Archived from the original on 21 March 2016. Retrieved 21 September 2015.
  183. ^ 4 years and 80 lashes for drug addict . Emirates247.com (1 November 2011). Retrieved 26 November 2015.
  184. ^ Woman denies affair after hearing she faces stoning. Thenational.ae (29 July 2009). Retrieved 26 November 2015.
  185. ^ Expat faces death by stoning after admitting in court to cheating on husband Archived 6 October 2014 at the Wayback Machine. 7daysindubai.com. Retrieved 26 November 2015.
  186. ^ Asian housemaid gets death for adultery in Abu Dhabi. Qatar Living (4 May 2014). Retrieved 26 November 2015.
  187. ^ Document | Amnesty International. Amnesty.org. Retrieved 26 November 2015.
  188. ^ Two women sentenced to death for adultery Archived 6 October 2014 at the Wayback Machine. Khaleej Times (25 September 2013). Retrieved 26 November 2015.
  189. ^ "Woman denies affair after hearing she faces stoning". The National. 29 July 2009.
  190. ^ "Hotel executive who had abortion gets jail term". The National. 30 December 2010.
  191. ^ ""Change plea or you'll be stoned": Husband who admits cheating given legal advice by judge". 7days.ae. 6 April 2014. Archived from the original on 5 April 2016.
  192. ^ "To avoid 100 lashes and prison, woman retracts plea in sex case". The National. 9 October 2009.
  193. ^ "Lawyer urges acquittal of woman on zina charges". The National. 26 November 2010.
  194. ^ Refugees, United Nations High Commissioner for. "Refworld | Amnesty International Report 1999 - United Arab Emirates". Refworld.
  195. ^ "United Arab Emirates – Global Progress" (PDF). p. 3. Archived from the original (PDF) on 11 March 2016. Retrieved 4 February 2016. Punishments include flogging, amputation, and – as retaliation – injury similar to that for which the offender has been convicted of inflicting on the victim.
  196. ^ "Defining Sharia's role in the UAE's legal foundation". The National.
  197. ^ "Crucifixion for UAE murderers". The Independent.
  198. ^ "UAE: Further information on fear of imminent crucifixion and execution". Amnesty International. September 1997.
  199. ^ "UAE: Fear of imminent crucifixion and execution". Amnesty International. September 1997.
  200. ^ "Federal Law No (3) of 1987 on Issuance of the Penal Code". United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime. Archived from the original on 25 May 2013.
  201. ^ "Measures Against Corruptibility, Gifts and Gratification – Bribery in the Middle East" (PDF). Arab Law Quarterly.
  202. ^ "United Arab Emirates | Global Initiative to End All Corporal Punishment of Children". Retrieved 24 April 2022.
  203. ^ "The United Arab Emirates relaxes laws on alcohol - Drinks International - The global choice for drinks buyers". drinksint.com. Retrieved 25 April 2022.
  204. ^ a b Britons 'liable to Sharia divorces' in UAE. Bbc.co.uk. Retrieved 26 November 2015.
  205. ^ a b "Divorcees, widows concerned about receiving 'permission' before remarrying". The National. 6 August 2014.
  206. ^ a b c "United Arab Emirates International Religious Freedom Report, Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor (2009)". U.S. Department of State. Archived from the original on 31 October 2009.
  207. ^ Agence France Presse (5 July 2012). "Single female, over 30 and 'too old' to marry in UAE". NDTV.com. Retrieved 11 July 2020.
  208. ^ Public kissing can lead to deportation | The National. Thenational.ae (7 July 2008). Retrieved 26 November 2015.
  209. ^ Jailed Dubai kissing pair lose appeal over conviction. BBC News (4 April 2010). Retrieved 26 November 2015.
  210. ^ "Women get jail and deportation for kissing on Dubai public beach". Gulf News. 25 May 2008. Archived from the original on 15 January 2015. Retrieved 1 January 2012.
  211. ^ London man tells of 'shock' jailing in Dubai over kiss. Bbc.com. Retrieved 26 November 2015.
  212. ^ "Couple deny kissing on Abu Dhabi Corniche". A man jailed and sentenced to 80 lashes for drunkenly kissing his girlfriend on the Corniche
  213. ^ a b "Swearing on WhatsApp 'will result in £40,000 fine and deportation, UAE rules'". The Independent. 16 June 2015.
  214. ^ "Man to face trial in UAE for swearing in WhatsApp message". 7days.ae. 16 June 2015. Archived from the original on 23 September 2015.
  215. ^ "British Expats Face Being Deported From UAE For Swearing on WhatsApp". Yahoo News. 16 June 2015.
  216. ^ "Australian woman deported from Abu Dhabi over Facebook post". Khaleej Times. 15 July 2015.
  217. ^ "Australian woman deported from the UAE after Facebook post". Arabian Business. 15 July 2015.
  218. ^ "Australian jailed over Facebook post deported from Abu Dhabi". Stuff.co.nz. 15 July 2015.
  219. ^ "Expat deported after posting abusive message about parking on Facebook". 7days.ae. 15 July 2015. Archived from the original on 23 September 2015.
  220. ^ "Australian expat deported following Facebook post". Gulf News. 15 July 2015.
  221. ^ "United Arab Emirates". Facts as drug trafficking, homosexual behaviour, and apostasy are liable to capital punishment.
  222. ^ a b "Man Accused of 'Gay Handshake' Stands Trial in Dubai". Archived from the original on 30 October 2015. Retrieved 11 January 2015.
  223. ^ "Federal criminal statute in UAE". Sodomylaws.Org. Archived from the original on 14 June 2006.
  224. ^ "UAE decriminalises alcohol and lifts ban on unmarried couples living together". The Guardian. 9 November 2020. Retrieved 9 November 2020.
  225. ^ Evans, Robert. (9 December 2013) Atheists face death in 13 countries, global discrimination: study. Reuters. Retrieved 26 November 2015.
  226. ^ "The International Briefing: Persecution of Atheists and Apostates". Archived from the original on 28 April 2015.
  227. ^ "UAE to deport expats abusing religions". Emirates 247. 22 July 2015.
  228. ^ a b Butti Sultan Butti Ali Al-Muhairi (1996). "The Islamisation of Laws in the UAE: The Case of the Penal Code". Arab Law Quarterly. 11 (4): 350–371. doi:10.2307/3381546. JSTOR 3381546.
  229. ^ Al-Muhairi (1997), Conclusion to the Series of Articles on the UAE Penal Law. Arab Law Quarterly, Vol. 12, No. 4
  230. ^ Topping, Alexandra (26 October 2015). "UAE imprisoning rape victims under extramarital sex laws – investigation". The Guardian.
  231. ^ a b c d "Dubai ruler pardons Norwegian woman convicted after she reported rape". CNN.com. Retrieved 10 September 2013.
  232. ^ a b "Dubai's Progressive Charade". The Daily Beast. Retrieved 12 February 2016.
  233. ^ a b "Gang-rape victim in Dubai arrested for drinking alcohol: report". New York Daily News. Retrieved 12 February 2016.
  234. ^ "Dubai: Victim of gang rape sentenced to one year in prison". 17 June 2010.
  235. ^ Alkhalisi, Zahraa; Meyer, Henry (7 June 2010). "U.A.E. Woman Withdraws Gang-Rape Claim to Avoid Lashes, Prison". www.bloomberg.com.
  236. ^ "Court jails Emirati woman in gang rape case". Arabian Business. 14 June 2010.
  237. ^ "Criminal Law of Dubai". lawyersuae.com. 23 October 2012.
  238. ^ "المشارق". al-shorfa.com. Archived from the original on 19 December 2014. Retrieved 15 February 2015.
  239. ^ No dancing in public: Dubai. Arab News (15 March 2009). Retrieved 26 November 2015.
  240. ^ "Divorcees, widows concerned about receiving 'permission' before remarrying". The National. 6 August 2014.
  241. ^ "UAE: Ruthless crackdown on dissent exposes 'ugly reality' beneath façade of glitz and glamour". Amnesty International. 18 November 2014.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  242. ^ a b "Silencing dissent in the UAE" (PDF). Amnesty International. Archived from the original (PDF) on 19 February 2017. Retrieved 19 February 2017.
  243. ^ "Silencing dissent in the UAE". Amnesty International. pp. 16–29, 35–45. Archived from the original on 4 September 2019. Retrieved 20 November 2018.
  244. ^ a b c d "Forced Disappearances and Torture in the United Arab Emirates" (PDF). Arab Organisation for Human Rights. November 2014. Archived from the original (PDF) on 15 January 2016. Retrieved 4 February 2016.
  245. ^ a b UAE: Enforced Disappearance and Torture|Human Rights Watch. Hrw.org. Retrieved 26 November 2015.
  246. ^ Human Rights in the United – UAE: Enforced disappearances continue Archived 26 November 2015 at the Wayback Machine. Ic4jhr.net. Retrieved 26 November 2015.
  247. ^ Emirati victim of enforced disappearance seen in state security prison » Emirates Centre for Human Rights. Echr.org.uk (14 March 2014). Retrieved 26 November 2015.
  248. ^ UAE must reveal whereabouts of 'disappeared' Libyans and Emiratis: HRW. Middle East Eye (6 October 2014). Retrieved 26 November 2015.
  249. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l UAE's crackdown on democracy short-sighted Archived 26 November 2015 at the Wayback Machine. Middleeastmonitor.com. Retrieved 26 November 2015.
  250. ^ Hearst, David (2013). "The UAE's bizarre, political trial of 94 activists". The Guardian.
  251. ^ Brumfield, Ben; Faraj, Caroline; Abedine, Saad (11 April 2013). "Man faces 10 months jail for tweets about trial in UAE". CNN. Retrieved 18 April 2013.
  252. ^ UAE Three women held in secret detention over tweets|Amnesty International. Amnesty.org (27 February 2015). Retrieved 26 November 2015.
  253. ^ UAE: Reveal Whereabouts of ‘Disappeared’ Libyans | Human Rights Watch. Hrw.org. Retrieved 26 November 2015.
  254. ^ a b "Urgent Action: Enforced Disappearance of Qatari Nationals" (PDF). Amnesty International.
  255. ^ "Shiites deported from Gulf lament injustice". Daily Star. 4 July 2013.
  256. ^ "Concern over deportations from Gulf Arab states". RTÉ.ie. 5 July 2013.
  257. ^ Wigglesworth, Robin (19 July 2010). "UAE urged to allow appeal on deportations". Financial Times. Archived from the original on 25 May 2017. Retrieved 16 June 2021.
  258. ^ "UAE deportations raise questions in Lebanon". Global Post. July 2013.
  259. ^ "Lebanese Shiites Ousted from Gulf over Hizbullah Ties". naharnet.com. July 2013.
  260. ^ "Lebanese Living in UAE Fear Deportation". Al Monitor. 2013. Archived from the original on 16 October 2014.
  261. ^ "UAE Deports 125 Lebanese Citizens". Al Monitor. 2013. Archived from the original on 25 December 2014.
  262. ^ "UAE/Lebanon: Allow Lebanese/Palestinian Deportees to Appeal". Human Rights Watch. 2010.
  263. ^ "Lebanese Families in UAE Face Deportations on Short Notice". Al Monitor. 2012. Archived from the original on 17 November 2015.
  264. ^ Luca, Ana Maria (5 June 2013) Hezbollah and the Gulf. mmedia.me
  265. ^ Thousands of Shias Coercively deported from UAE – Majlis-e-Ulama-e-Shia Europe Archived 25 December 2014 at the Wayback Machine. Majlis.org.uk. Retrieved on 21 August 2018.
  266. ^ Whitson, Sarah Leah (24 March 2007). "UAE: Draft Labor Law Violates International Standards". Human Rights Watch.
  267. ^ "Indian workers jailed in Dubai over violent protest". Reuters. 24 February 2008.
  268. ^ "Annual Report 2013". Amnesty International. Archived from the original on 10 April 2014. Retrieved 2 April 2014.
  269. ^ "Human Rights in The UAE". Archived from the original on 13 February 2015.
  270. ^ Fanack. "Stifling Dissent in the UAE". Fanack.com. Archived from the original on 13 July 2015. Retrieved 13 July 2015.
  271. ^ "United Arab Emirates". International Trade Union Confederation.
  272. ^ "United Arab Emirates". International Trade Union Confederation.
  273. ^ Conditions for Abu Dhabi's migrant workers 'shame the west' | World news. The Guardian (22 December 2013). Retrieved on 21 August 2018.
  274. ^ Batty, David (13 September 2014). "Call for UN to investigate plight of migrant workers in the UAE". The Guardian.
  275. ^ "Workers at Dubai's Expo 2020 likely to have suffered dangerous heat stress". The Guardian. 3 October 2019. Retrieved 3 October 2019.
  276. ^ "Tourist visa scam traps Indian workers in abusive jobs in UAE". Weekly Reviewer. Archived from the original on 16 January 2020. Retrieved 15 January 2020.
  277. ^ "UAE's migrant workers fret over future in coronavirus economy". Reuters. 22 July 2020. Retrieved 22 July 2020.
  278. ^ "150,000 Indians in UAE register to fly home during coronavirus pandemic". Gulf News. Retrieved 2 May 2020.
  279. ^ Stewart, Ashleigh (9 October 2020). "Homeless migrants sleep rough beneath Dubai's skyscrapers as Covid employment crisis bites". The Telegraph. Archived from the original on 10 January 2022. Retrieved 9 October 2020.
  280. ^ "German company using UAE firm with record of migrant worker abuse, rights group says". Middle East Monitor. 7 May 2021. Retrieved 7 May 2021.
  281. ^ "Publication Archives". Freedom House.
  282. ^ "United Arab Emirates". Carnegie Endowment. p. 10. UAE Prime Minister Sheikh Muhammad bin Rashid al-Maktum decreed on September 25, 2007 that journalists can no longer be imprisoned for reasons relating to their work, setting a first for the decriminalization of media offences in the region.
  283. ^ "Federal Decree-Law no.5" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 25 July 2019. Retrieved 30 September 2018.
  284. ^ "United Arab Emirates – Media". BBC News. 15 June 2012.
  285. ^ a b "Types of media - The Official Portal of the UAE Government". u.ae. Retrieved 9 August 2021.
  286. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k "United Arab Emirates – Economic, Social, and Institutional Analysis – Empyrean Advisors". www.empyrean-advisors.com. Retrieved 27 September 2019.
  287. ^ a b "UAE's economy growth momentum set to pick up". Khaleej Times. 27 December 2013. Archived from the original on 4 January 2014. Retrieved 5 January 2014.
  288. ^ "Ranking of Economies". World Bank Group. Archived from the original on 4 June 2011.
  289. ^ a b "Global Innovation Index 2021". World Intellectual Property Organization. United Nations. Retrieved 5 March 2022.
  290. ^ a b "United Arab Emirates". ITUC.
  291. ^ Krane, Jim (2009). City of Gold: Dubai and the Dream of Capitalism. New York: St. Martin's Press. pp. 267–270. ISBN 978-0-312-53574-2.
  292. ^ Kerr, Simeon (18 October 2019). "UAE banks prepare for rough ride ahead". Financial Times. Retrieved 18 October 2019.
  293. ^ "Les Emirats arabes unis dans le top 10 des paradis fiscaux, selon une ONG". L'Orient-Le Jour. 9 March 2021.
  294. ^ "EDGAR - The Emissions Database for Global Atmospheric Research". edgar.jrc.ec.europa.eu. Retrieved 24 April 2021.
  295. ^ Reuters. (19 January 2022). "Unit 2 of UAE’s Barakah nuclear plant to start operations within months: ENEC CEO". Al Arabiya website Retrieved 22 January 2022.
  296. ^ "Dubai Ranks Fifth Among Top Global Destinations For Travellers". Gulf Business. 10 July 2014. Archived from the original on 17 October 2015. Retrieved 4 February 2016.
  297. ^ "Infrastructure in the United Arab Emirates (UAE)". The Prospect Group.
  298. ^ "UAE yearbook 2009". Slideshare.net. 13 April 2009.
  299. ^ a b c "Topic: Tourism industry of the UAE". Statista. Retrieved 31 July 2021.
  300. ^ "UAE Offers 5-Year Tourist Visa as Neighbors Vie for Visitors". Business Live Middle East. 7 January 2020. Retrieved 7 January 2020.
  301. ^ Anderson, Elizabeth (27 January 2015). "Dubai Overtakes Heathrow To Become World's Busiest". The Telegraph. Retrieved 12 February 2015.
  302. ^ Salik. "Home". Salik. Retrieved 2 August 2021.
  303. ^ "Getting a driving licence - The Official Portal of the UAE Government". u.ae. Retrieved 3 August 2021.
  304. ^ "From sand to sea". International Railway Journal. 21 March 2012.
  305. ^ "Will metro change Dubai car culture?". BBC News. 11 September 2009.
  306. ^ "UAE Ports". Uae.gov.ae. Archived from the original on 14 July 2008.
  307. ^ Shepard, Wade. "Next Up On China's Maritime Silk Road: Abu Dhabi". Forbes.
  308. ^ "China flags up UAE as Silk Road mega-hub with $300m port deal". Arab News. 10 December 2018.
  309. ^ "United Arab Emirates" (PDF). OpenNet Interactive.
  310. ^ "UAE telecom market grows with competition | Mobile telecomms report". Ameinfo.com. Archived from the original on 14 December 2014.
  311. ^ "UAE reports high website censorship". The National Newspaper. 12 June 2009.
  312. ^ Khaleej Times (17 February 2019). "UAE ready for fast lane with 5G in 2019".
  313. ^ a b c Hurriez, Sayyid Hamid (2013). Folklore and Folklife in the United Arab Emirates. p. 167. ISBN 978-1136849077.
  314. ^ Sandıkcı, Özlem; Rice, Gillian (2011). Handbook of Islamic Marketing. p. 430. ISBN 978-0857936028. Arabian and Persian inspired architecture is part of the expression of a 'local' identity
  315. ^ Hellyer, Peter (2001). United Arab Emirates: A New Perspective. Trident. p. 181. ISBN 978-1900724470.
  316. ^ "Migration Information Source". migrationpolicy.org.
  317. ^ Rivals Dubai and Abu Dhabi tackle coronavirus in very different ways
  318. ^ "Official holidays in UAE". Gowealthy.com. Archived from the original on 3 May 2008.
  319. ^ "UAE National Clothing". Grapeshisha.com. Archived from the original on 4 January 2012.
  320. ^ a b "Literature and poetry". Visitabudhabi.ae. 1 July 2009. Archived from the original on 8 October 2011.
  321. ^ Sharjah Museums Department Archived 22 February 2011 at the Wayback Machine. sharjahmuseums.ae
  322. ^ "About Sharjah – Sharjah Commerce Tourism Development Authority". Sharjahtourism.ae. 18 October 2009. Archived from the original on 2 February 2009.
  323. ^ Dubai FAQs. "Art Galleries Dubai". Dubaifaqs.com.
  324. ^ "Saadiyat Island – Island of Happiness". Saadiyat.ae. 19 March 2009. Archived from the original on 30 July 2012.
  325. ^ Irish, John and Walid, Tamara (11 June 2009). "Dubai eyeing new fashion, design district". ArabianBusiness.com.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  326. ^ "Festival Info". DesertRockFestival.com. Archived from the original on 19 January 2010.
  327. ^ "UAE Travel& Tourism: Food & Drink". UAEinteract. Archived from the original on 11 June 2009.
  328. ^ Samtani, Kumar (8 January 2018). "7 Traditional Emirati Dishes to Try in Dubai". Eat Your World Blog. Retrieved 18 August 2021.
  329. ^ The UAE's big fat problem. Gulf News. (19 July 2012). Retrieved 26 January 2014.
  330. ^ "Alcohol and Pork Licenses". Alloexpat.com. 30 May 2009. Archived from the original on 5 August 2009.
  331. ^ "Abu Dhabi confirms 5pm race start". Autosport. 28 August 2009.
  332. ^ "UAE Sports". Uae.gov.ae. Archived from the original on 11 June 2008.
  333. ^ Middle East | Help for Gulf child camel jockeys. BBC News (2 December 2004). Retrieved 10 October 2015.
  334. ^ "Ansar Burney – a true champion of human rights". Archived from the original on 23 November 2019. Retrieved 19 July 2018.
  335. ^ "Clubs, Sports Clubs UAE United Arab Emirates". Indexuae.com. Archived from the original on 17 July 2009. Retrieved 8 July 2009.
  336. ^ "Gulf Cup 2007". Gulf News. Archived from the original on 18 March 2007.
  337. ^ "ICC headquarters to stay in Dubai". Hindustan Times. 14 October 2010. Retrieved 6 November 2021.
  338. ^ "UAE Cricket Timeline". Cricketeurope4.net. Archived from the original on 9 July 2012.
  339. ^ "Cricinfo – Grounds – United Arab Emirates". Content-uk.cricinfo.com. 17 June 2008. Archived from the original on 6 January 2009.
  340. ^ Nayar, K.R. (6 September 2008). "Not stumped by UAE cricket issues – Khan". Gulf News. Archived from the original on 6 April 2015. Retrieved 1 January 2012.
  341. ^ "Qualification – Cricket World Cup 2015 Qualifier | ICC". Archived from the original on 4 November 2013.
  342. ^ "Pakistan not to play home matches in UAE anymore: PCB CEO". Hindustan Times. 24 September 2019.
  343. ^ "UAE to host matches for Pakistan Super League next year". Arab News. 15 December 2018. Retrieved 19 February 2021.
  344. ^ "IPL 2020 to be held from September 19 to November 10". Hindustan Times. 2 August 2020. Retrieved 9 May 2021.
  345. ^ "American University in Dubai. Undergraduate : Admission". Aud.edu. Archived from the original on 24 December 2010.
  346. ^ "Middle East :: United Arab Emirates – The World Factbook – Central Intelligence Agency". www.cia.gov. Retrieved 29 October 2019.
  347. ^ "MASDAR | Profile". Web.archive.org. 31 July 2008. Archived from the original on 31 July 2008.
  348. ^ Khalifa University | Undergraduate. Top Universities. Retrieved 10 October 2015.
  349. ^ American University of Sharjah Rankings. Top Universities. Retrieved 26 November 2015.
  350. ^ "Global Innovation Index 2019". www.wipo.int. Retrieved 2 September 2021.
  351. ^ "RTD - Item". ec.europa.eu. Retrieved 2 September 2021.
  352. ^ "Global Innovation Index". INSEAD Knowledge. 28 October 2013. Retrieved 2 September 2021.
  353. ^ "UAE Population Statistics".{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  354. ^ "Net migration rate". Cia.gov. Archived from the original on 8 March 2016. Retrieved 9 March 2010.
  355. ^ "UAE nationality". u.ae. Retrieved 10 December 2020.
  356. ^ "Indians, Pakistanis make up 23% of Dubai, Sharjah, Ajman population". gulfnews.com. Retrieved 7 August 2015.
  357. ^ Sambidge, Andy (7 October 2009). "UAE population hits 6m, Emiratis make up 16.5%". ArabianBusiness.com.
  358. ^ Mcintosh, Lindsay (16 June 2008). "Terror red alert for 100,000 British expats in Dubai". The Scotsman.
  359. ^ Whittell, Giles (15 March 2010). "British pair face jail for kissing in Dubai restaurant". The Times. Archived from the original on 25 May 2010.
  360. ^ "Editorial: The Ideal Prince". Arabnews.com. 3 November 2004. Archived from the original on 9 July 2012.
  361. ^ "Table 3.10 Urbanization" (PDF). World Development Indicators. Archived from the original on 25 March 2009.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: unfit URL (link)
  362. ^ "Life expectancy at birth". The World Factbook. Archived from the original on 6 March 2016. Retrieved 14 September 2012.
  363. ^ "Average life expectancy in UAE rises to 75 years". Uaeinteract.com. Archived from the original on 11 June 2009.
  364. ^ "Sex ratio". The World Factbook. Archived from the original on 16 October 2013.
  365. ^ "International Religious Freedom Report for 2012 – United Arab Emirates". Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor.
  366. ^ "The World Factbook". CIA. Archived from the original on 26 December 2018. Retrieved 13 March 2021.
  367. ^ "United Arab Emirates 2017 International Religious Freedom Report". US Department of Justice. 2017. p. 2.
  368. ^ "The Return of Sufism to the UAE". Al-Mesbar Center. 16 April 2018. Retrieved 29 July 2021.
  369. ^ "United Arab Emirates". State.gov. Archived from the original on 31 October 2009. Retrieved 24 November 2010.
  370. ^ "Groeiende en vitale kerk in Arabische Golf - Nieuws - Reformatorisch Dagblad". Refdag.nl. Retrieved 24 November 2010.
  371. ^ "New Apostolic Vicar for Arabia Appointed". Zenit News Agency. 21 March 2005. Archived from the original on 7 June 2011. Retrieved 21 November 2008.
  372. ^ Herschlag, Miriam. "For the first time, Dubai's Jewish community steps hesitantly out of the shadows". www.timesofisrael.com. Retrieved 6 December 2018.
  373. ^ "The Jews of Dubai are on the map". ynetnews.com. 5 February 2019.
  374. ^ = 2010 Pew Research Center's Religion & Public Life Project: United Arab Emirates. Pew Research Center. 2010.
  375. ^ United Arab Emirates. International Religious Freedom Report 2007. State.gov. Retrieved 27 September 2013.
  376. ^ "UAE´s population – by nationality". bq magazine. 12 April 2015. Archived from the original on 21 March 2017. Retrieved 20 December 2016.
  377. ^ "India is a top source and destination for world's migrants". Pew Research Center. Retrieved 9 September 2019.
  378. ^ "First images of Abu Dhabi's Abrahamic Family House under construction released". The National. 15 June 2021. Retrieved 29 July 2021.
  379. ^ Christensen, Shane (2010). Frommer's Dubai. John Wiley & Sons. p. 174. ISBN 978-0-470-71178-1.
  380. ^ Gazetteer – The World – Life Expectancy – Top 100+ By Country (2018). Geoba.se (28 April 2016). Retrieved on 21 August 2018.
  381. ^ "United Arab Emirates country profile" (PDF). Library of Congress.
  382. ^ "Prevalence of obesity, ages 18+, 2010–2014". WHO. World Health Organisation. Retrieved 26 February 2016.
  383. ^ "UAE Health". Uae.gov.ae. Archived from the original on 12 June 2008.
  384. ^ El Shammaa, Dina (3 January 2009). "Health cover is mandatory". Gulf News. Archived from the original on 12 January 2015. Retrieved 1 January 2012.
  385. ^ Detrie, Megan (15 November 2009). "Dubai has eye on medical tourism". The National Newspaper. Archived from the original on 24 November 2009.

Further reading

External links

© Copyright 2022 by newsly.org. frontpage hit counter
ar | ca | cs | de | es | eu | fa | fr | ko | id | it | hu | ms | nl | ja | ce | no | pl | pt | ro | ru | sr | sh | fi | sv | tr | uk | vi | zh